In the series finale on Harry Foglietta and his favorite Hawaiian postcard collecting interests, we shall look at the advertising materials produced for the 1917 Mid Pacific Carnival. This was the last year a grandiose Carnival took place and the last time the Hawaii Promotion Committee employed an extensive advertising campaign to promote it.
As we shall soon see, the Committee was very obliging when they selected the artwork for their final Carnival postcard. I am very appreciative, as it provides a felicitous ending for my tribute to Harry – an amiable free spirit who became a lifelong surfer and a passionate collector of Hawaiiana.
The Last Hurrah
The last big Carnival was to be staged at Aala Park, near China Town in downtown Honolulu. According to an article in the August 8, 1916 Hawaiian Gazette, “AALA WILL DRAW BIG CROWDS, Aala Park was asked for, and is forthcoming…”
The article continued, “Bids for the Carnival posters will be opened at the next meeting of the Carnival directors, on August 16. An Advertisement is appearing in the press to this effect. Postcards and stickers are also wanted“(see Figure 1).
An article in the August 11, 1916 Hawaiian Gazette stated “CARNIVAL PROGRAM COMMITTEE PLANS TO ECLIPSE PAST – HAWAII”S FETE WILL OPEN WITH A BIG SENSATION… Events are laid out from Monday, February 19, to Saturday, February 24… which will make up a week of merrymaking, pageantry, fun, frolic and delightful entertainment such as [has] never been seen before in Honolulu.
“Monday, the first day of the Carnival, is to be entirely in the hands of Alexander Hume Ford, all around booster.” Apparently Ford – ever the promotor – was angling to have a re-run of the recently completed Panama Pacific International Exposition (PPIE) held in Honolulu starting in 1919. He intended to use the “opening ceremony” of the 1917 Carnival to showcase his ability to stage a much larger event.
The original exposition was a world’s fair held in primarily in San Fransisco (and a little in San Diego) from February 20 to December 4, 1915. In California Hunting and Fishing Licenses – Part Four, I explained “The purpose of the huge fair was ostensibly to celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal, but was widely seen on the part of locals as a way to showcase their recovery from the catastrophe [San Fransisco Earthquake and Fire].”
It added “The competition for contracts to lithograph and print all of the advertisements, posters, postcards, poster stamps, souvenirs and tickets… was an extraordinarily powerful force that, when added to the already competitive environment that existed in post 1906 San Francisco, produced the most beautiful and captivating hunting and fishing licenses in our hobby” (see Figures 2 and 3).
It should be noted that this same competitive environment was responsible for producing the beautiful 1913 and 1915 Mid Pacific Carnival advertising materials, by San Fransisco lithographers Britton & Rey and the Louis Roesch Co., respectively.
Ford Outlines his Plans
Ford outlined his plans in the October, 1916 issue of the Mid Pacific Magazine, in an article titled “The Pan-Pacific Pageant at the 1917 Mid-Pacific Carnival, Honolulu”. In the article he stated: “It is proposed to hold the Pan-Pacific Exposition in Honolulu in 1919-20, because this city is at the very center of the Great Ocean…
“Every year there is held in February in Honolulu a great Mid-Pacific Carnival to which the world is invited. The Pan Pacific Club has been asked to take over the big opening day of the 1917 Carnival, that it may be indicate what may be hoped for in the way of co-operation from many races in the effort to make the 1919 Pan-Pacific Exposition in Honolulu a success.
“The program… in opening the 1917 Mid Pacific Carnival includes the landing, on the morning of Monday, February the 19th, of the Carnival Kings, arriving from every land of the Pacific. The progress of this procession will be marked by the firing of bombs, the setting off of fireworks, and the letting loose of the Carnival Spirit along the line of this mad race, from the landing stage up the main streets to the Pan-Pacific Park, where about the Liliuokalani Falls, and in honor of Hawaii’s Ex-Queen, will be held the great luau or native feast, for twelve hundred guests.
“After the luau will be given the great Pan-Pacific Pageant and Floral Parade, in which the people of every land about the Great Ocean are invited to participate. Then will occur at the National Guard Armory, the Pan-Pacific Banquet with tables set for a thousand guests… Later there will be the big Ball-of-all-Nations, in the Palace Park, and as no one will be admitted to any of these functions unless in some picturesque costume of the Pacific, the Carnival spirit will be inevitable and unlimited.
“It is proposed to show during the evening parade, models on specially constructed floats of the different Pacific buildings which will probably be erected for the 1919 Exposition, as well as about a dozen large working models of the Hawaiian dioramas that are to be a feature of the international show…
“The Carnival headquarters have been moved to the Pan-Pacific rooms, and here is being made an extensive display of designs for all kinds of floats and automobiles. already more than one hundred entries for the Pageant and Floral Parade have been secured…
“Those who enter automobiles will be asked to select different flowers, vines and ferns of Hawaii with which to make their decorations, and any of these that are not in bloom in February will have to be created artificially, for it is proposed in a large section of the parade to show the flora of the Hawaiian Islands, as well as of other Pacific Islands. Already… Australia has entered an automobile that will be decorated with wattle… New South Wales has promised to send the waratah blossoms for decorations and a kangaroo as the occupant of its car in the parade.
“New Zealand will have a car decorated with the rata flower, and … a dozen Japanese firms [will] put in a s many automobiles, each decorated in a Japanese flower; emblematic of one of the twelve months of the year. California will, of corse, be represented by a car covered with poppies, and Oregon with a rose car, while the Chinese will make entry of a car resplendent with their lily…
“Every boy with a bicycle or man with a motorcycle will be asked to participate in the February pageant. The bicycles will lead in the pageant immediately behind Father Neptune, the surfboard riders and the canoeists. They will all represent the marvelous, gaudy fish of Hawaiian waters, and unique plans will be adopted for presenting the ocean effect…
“Everyone connected with the Pan-Pacific Pageant and Floral Parade in February, 1917, even the drivers, will have to appear in costume of some Pacific land… A feature of the great pageant will be the Hawaiian section of fifty-two floats… [which] will tell the story of Hawaii from the first colonization of the islands by Samoans, 1000 years ago, to the present time.”
Ford then goes into detail about each float for pages, including “… the foremost feature of which will be the great Pacific wave that will sweep down Honolulu’s main artery, carrying on its crest Father Neptune, and in the hollow of the billow the most famous surf riders of Hawaii… outrigger canoes and the surf-boards in advancing foam, will be seen every style of surf-board riding, from that practiced by the Hawaiian women hundreds of years ago to the new turns that have been invented by the small boy of Waikiki who spends more than half of his life in the waves or upon his surfboard…
“From the ideas that are born in the preparation for the 1917 Mid-Pacific Carnival, will develop many of the plans that will be carried out in the 1919-1920 Pan-Pacific Exposition in Honolulu…”
Wow! Alexander Hume Ford – you have to love his enthusiasm.
The 1917 Carnival Poster
We know that the artists for the 1917 Mid Pacific Carnival poster were Ned Steel and W. H. Bull as their names are printed in the bottom border of the postcards. Initially I was having trouble figuring out how the artwork was selected by the Hawaii Promotion Committee, so I contacted surf historian Tim De La Vega in Kauai.
According to Tim, the artwork was based on an original photograph by Roscoe Perkins. W.H. Bull then made a painting from the photograph which was used as the cover for Sunset Magazine in August of 1916 – the credit reads “The Surf Riders, painted by W.H. Bull” (see Figures 4 and 5).
The August issue of Sunset Magazine would have hit the newsstands at about the same time the Hawaii Promotion Committee was thinking about a new poster design for the 1917 Carnival. At this point in time, Ned Steel was the staff artist for the Honolulu Advertiser and was well known to the Committee. If you remember, he had co-designed the artwork for the popular 1914 Carnival poster (along with photographer Lew Henderson).
The Committee must have asked him to take Bull’s painting and turn it into an advertising poster – by creating a border and the appropriate lettering. At the bottom of the design, Steel included a caption for Perkins’ surfing image: “On the Beach at Waikiki”.
The Committee also selected a local firm, the Hawaiian Gazette, to produce the 1917 advertising materials, despite lower bids from the San Fransisco lithographers. According to an article in the August 16, 1916 Honolulu Star Bulletin headlined “BIDS FOR CARNIVAL POSTERS, CARDS AND STICKERS OPENED, Bids on the Mid-Pacific Carnival posters, postcards and stickers were opened at the office of the Hawaii Promotion Committee today at noon… The announcement of the bids will be made before the board of directors, but when the bids were opened today it was found that the coast bidders had as a rule named prices under the local printing houses.”
A short article ran on page three of the September 20, 1916 Honolulu Star Bulletin regarding poster distribution, “Fred J. Halton, and other members of the Promotion Committee start today the distribution of 30,000 Mid Pacific Carnival posters. A.P. Taylor, Secretary of the Promotion Committee, says hundreds will be displayed in the states in windows with ukulele exhibits and also in railway and steamship offices.”
A somewhat longer article appeared in the September 22, 1916 Hawaiian Gazette, headlined “CARNIVAL POSTERS ARE READY FOR DISTRIBUTION… Thirty thousand Mid-Pacific Carnival posters will be distributed to the mainland beginning today. The first copies of the poster will be received at the mainland offices of the Promotion Committee and Fred J. Halton and other representatives of the Committee will at once set about the work of getting them before the public…”
Posters. What stands out in these last two articles is the number of 1917 posters printed. At 30,000 this is at least three times as many as were printed in any previous year (and three times as many postcards as in 1916). I find it remarkable that despite this huge number – I am not aware that any have survived.
Postcards. The postcard features the poster design Ned Steel created from W.H. Bull’s painting of Roscoe Perkins’ photograph. As stated above, the lower border has the names Ned Steel printed at the left and W.H. Bull at the right. The back of the card has the Hawaiian Gazette imprint at the far left and a printed message (see Figures 6 and 7). Needless to say, this was one of Harry’s favorites.
There was a day when this was one of the most difficult postcards in the series for collectors to acquire (it was last for me to complete my set). Then a strange thing happened – more and more started to appear, relative to the other cards in the series. I would now say it is moderately difficult. You have to wonder, if 30,000 posters were printed for the 1917 event – how many postcards were printed? I have been unable to find this information.
Ranking the Mid Pacific Carnival Postcards
With 36 years of collecting and dealing experience, I will now rank the Mid Pacific Carnival postcards in order of Difficulty of Acquisition:
- 1914 Type I (printed message)
- 1910 Type I (no printed message)
- 1910 Type II (printed message)
- 1914 Type II (no printed message)
It may come as a surprise to find the 1914 Type II card ranked so low on the list. Please keep this in mind: Due to their broad appeal – there are more 1914 Type II and 1915 cards in general postcard collections than for all of the other years combined. There are also a large number of 1914 Type II cards in surfer’s collections. As a consequence, more of these two cards are periodically recycled into the collector market.
Poster Stamps. I have not been able to find the number printed for this poster stamp. It is one of more difficult Mid Pacific Carnival stamps to locate today, especially in nice condition (see Figure 8).
Image Published as a Real Photo Postcard
The fact that this venerable surfing image was published as a real photo postcard is not surprising. What is surprising, is that this did not occur until 15 years after the Carnival postcards were printed. These must have been very popular with tourists during the 1930s as they are plentiful today. The earliest usage in my collection is from 1931 (see Figure 9).
Duke is King of the Carnival
In Harry Foglietta Remembered – Part Six, I showed a real photo postcard of Duke Kahanamoku captioned “King of the Carnival 1917” (see Figure 10, below). I stated that I inferred from the caption Duke was King of the Mid Pacific Carnival in 1917 – but had no solid evidence.
In researching this part of the series I found what I was looking for. The Honolulu Star Bulletin ran a long article on February 17, 1917 headlined “FESTIVITIES BEGIN TODAY AND GAY CARNIVAL WILL FOLLOW AFTER”. For quite a number of paragraphs the reporter outlined the the schedule of events and it follows almost exactly the outline of Alexander Hume Ford’s vision reprinted above.
There was one important new piece of information: “…That Duke Kahanamoku, the noted Hawaiian swimmer, who is to be the Hawaiian Carnival King and lead the Pan-Pacific pageant Monday afternoon will wear a genuine feather robe, is the confident declaration of Mayor John C. Lane, chairman of the Carnival kings’ committee.
“A feather robe was the outward mark of Hawaiian royalty and Mayor Lane considered it appropriate that the king of Hawaiian swimmers should appear dressed as were the rulers of his forefathers when he appears as a Carnival king on Monday.
“It was Mayor Lane who induced Kahanamoku to act as the Hawaiian Carnival King, for he realized that there is perhaps no other Hawaiian whom the average visitor desires to see so much as Duke Kahanamoku…
“With a number of other youths, Kahanamoku will ride upon the first float of the Pan-Pacific pageant, which has been named ‘A Waikiki Wave’. It is a representation of a huge billow, such as Jack London called a ‘Kanaka Wave’ in one of his last stories of Hawaii. Kahanamoku will stand in the middle of a canoe slanting down the crest of the wave, while fore and aft there will be two royal retainers. Other figures upon the wave float will be those of surf-riders.”
The February 19, 1916 Honolulu Star Bulletin carried a front page article headlined “Hawaii’s Champion of the Sea, Duke Kahanamoku, on Monster Wave as King, Duke P. Kahanamoku Jr., champion short distance swimmer of the world and winner of the last International Olympiad at Stockholm, Sweden, is Hawaiian King of the Carnival today, and the float upon which he rides – a huge wave – is at the head of the procession.
“He is shown above wearing the feather caps of royalty… Below is the great wave, Kahanamoku (on the right) and two of his companions of the Hawaiian swimming club, Hui Nalu… ” (see Figure 11).
I have a real photo postcard that shows a similar float to the one described and shown above. However, this float is manned by younger kids (see Figure 12).
Thanks in large part to the efforts of Alexander Hume Ford, the 1917 Mid Pacific Carnival, while again losing money – was a rousing good time. For many citizens of the territory, their feelings were summed up in an editorial which appeared in the May 4, 1917 Maui News: “Carnival Lost Money – No Regrets”.
Once Again, A Public Debate
All during the last three Carnivals, the war had raged on. After the sinking of seven U.S. merchant ships by submarines in the spring of 1917, President Wilson called for war on Germany on April 2. Just four days later, on April 6, Congress declared war. Soon, the question was asked once again: Is the Mid Pacific Carnival appropriate? (see Figure 13).
On July 3, 1917, the Honolulu Star Bulletin ran an article headlined “A HINT FROM THE PRESIDENTIAL OFFICE, Public opinion in Hawaii is answering an emphatic ‘No!’ to the question, Shall We call off the Mid Pacific Carnival next February?’
“President Wilson is on record as avowedly opposed to calling off conventions and other gatherings for community advancement… The president has further endorsed community events with a real purpose behind them, since the war begun, through his willingness to speak at such events…
“The character of the Mid Pacific Carnival should be somewhat changed, laying more emphasis on patriotic and military features, and with its proceeds going to the Red Cross or other benefit fund. These details which may be worked out later… ”
The Party Comes to an End
On July 12, 1917, an article ran in the Honolulu Star Bulletin headlined,”C. OF C. DIRECTORS FAVOR CARNIVAL WITHOUT FRILLS, Taking the stand that the 1918 Mid Pacific Carnival should be devoted to patriotic and military ceremonies with the possible exception of an athletic program, that it should not extend over more than two days and that it should be entirely a home celebration and not an event solely for tourists, the Chamber of Commerce at their meeting Wednesday afternoon voted against a general celebration as in former years…
“The directors were also strongly opposed to the usual features of frolic and fun, believing the occasion should be a more serious affair…”
There were plenty of outspoken Honolulu businessmen who tried in vain to keep the big celebration going. An editorial in the July 18, 1917 Honolulu Star Bulletin stated “Pasadena is going ahead as usual with her annual Rose Parade Carnival… Honolulu should do the same regarding the  Mid Pacific Carnival.”
Another editorial in the July 19, 1917 Honolulu Star Bulletin expanded upon this sentiment, “The Mid-Pacific Carnival is not an expression of frivolity but a business enterprise. The Honolulu merchant does not refuse to sell feminine – or masculine – fripperies because we have gone to war; the drug stores have not appreciably reduced their stock of perfumes and powder-puffs; bankers and sugar magnates appear to be buying new cars pretty frequently. There is business as well as a personal pleasure side to these things. So with the Mid-Pacific Carnival.
“The Carnival is Hawaii’s annual shop-window display. What progressive merchant is draping his windows in monotonous drab because we are at war?”
A New Territorial Fair
In December of 1917, final plans were made to end the Mid Pacific Carnival as we know it today and transfer many of its activities to a new territorial fair. Although a Carnival by the same name would be held in February of 1918 – it was, to a great extent, superseded by Hawaii’s First Territorial Fair.
According to an article in the December 4, 1917 Honolulu Star Bulletin headlined “CARNIVAL, FAIR, That the 1917 Mid-Pacific Carnival confine its activities to a military parade and Hawaiian pageant on February 22, and turn the rest of its amusements and features over to the territorial fair commission which is planning extensive festivities to begin June 11, is the suggestion which has been made to Carnival officers by members of the commission. The suggestion is said to have been favorably received, and it is likely that it will be adopted…
“The fair promises to be the largest ever held in the territory, and farmers have promised to send stock, chickens and farm products to Honolulu for exhibit. Industrial, mercantile and educational exhibits will also be held, and there will be a large number of amusements and other features.”
The idea for the Territorial Fair came on the heels of two very successful county fairs. One took place on Maui and the other on the big island. I have a few postcards from these events to share. The first two are from the first Maui County Fair in 1916. One of them shows a float similar to those seen in past Floral Parades (see Figures 14 and 15).
The next two images show the front and back of a postcard used to advertise the Hawaii County Fair which took place in Hilo from September 21-25 1916. The image on the front of this card was taken from a photograph of Adele Robinson by R.J. Baker in 1910 (see Figures 16, 17 and 18).
1918 – “A Carnival for Home Folk”
The last Mid Pacific Carnival was held in 1918. There were no advertising materials printed by the Hawaii Promotion Committee and it was a relatively small, local affair that bore only a passing resemblance to the previous events. An article in the February 12, 1918 Hawaiian Gazette was headlined “ANNUAL CARNIVAL TO BE HOME AFFAIR AND FOR HOME FOLK… ADMISSIONS WILL BE KEPT TO LOW FIGURE…This years Carnival is a home affair for home people. It has not been extensively advertised on the mainland as a tourist attraction as were those of the past…
“The Committee has put the price of admission for the various attractions down to the lowest possible figure so as to open them up to the people of the city and county… The Committee is asking all automobile owners to decorate their cars for the whole of the Carnival Period (two days)… One of the features which is growing in magnitude is the open air or street dance… Mr. Arthur Wall will [be in charge] of the Hibiscus Show to be held Saturday, February 23.”
And then, all too soon for many, it was over – the marvelous Honolulu affair that started with the tiny 1902 Merchants Fair and 1904 Floral Auto Parade. For a very brief period of time, in the years just prior to the start of the war, the Mid Pacific Carnival rivaled the grandest celebrations in the world (Nice, Brazil, New Orleans). It cast Honolulu and the Hawaiian Islands in a brilliant light and increased tourism, business for Honolulu Merchants and investment in what would ultimately become our 50th state. It provided a huge number of local jobs and created many happy memories for both visitors and residents alike.
In business, they say timing is everything. Unfortunately for Alexander Hume Ford and the rest of the Hawaiian businessmen – their timing was not great. That the Carnival was relatively short-lived was certainly not for lack of trying and in no way their fault. No one could have envisioned the magnitude of the coming war in Europe or predict the length of the shadow it would cast.
The Hawaii Promotion Committee had the grandest of visions. In order to help turn their dreams into a reality they distributed some of the most beautiful advertising materials in history. Today these posters, postcards and poster stamps serve as a glorious reminder to what was once was one of the biggest celebrations in U.S. history – the Honolulu Floral Parade and Mid Pacific Carnival.
The First Territorial Fair
For another few years (1918 – 1922), some of the Carnival spirit lived on in the form of Hawaii’s Annual Territorial Fair. It certainly softened the blow to the psyche of the Honolulu businessmen. An article appeared in the March 5, 1918 Garden Island headlined “THE TERRITORIAL FAIR – Hawaiian Days, Japanese Days and Glorious Days for Everybody… Everyone [sic] of the days of the Territorial Fair next [this] June will have a special program of entertainment for the crowds of sightseers. A plan has been suggested to Chairman Angus whereby the Japanese, Chinese, Hawaiians and other races may have an entire day set aside for each…
“Hawaiian day would take place on Kamehameha Day. At state fairs on the mainland, principle amusement usually consists of horse races or automobile races. Aala Park has no race course and hence that item cannot figure into the entertainment program.
“The Hawaii Polo and Racing Association has consented to cancel the annual two day racing program which it conducts at Kapiolanai Park on June 10 and 11, so there should be nothing to interfere with the special attractions which the Fair will offer those dates.
“Japanese day can be made a big drawing card. There is proof of this in the wonderful spectacle the people of that race have presented at the Mid Pacific Carnival of other years. Big inter-island wrestling tournaments, fencing exhibitions and other sport events for the afternoon, with a gorgeous, colorful lantern parade such as only the Japanese know how to give, for the early evening, followed by Japanese theatrical features on the fairgrounds, have been suggested for that day…”
A follow-up article appeared on April 26, 1918 in the Maui News, headlined “Plans As Developing For the Big Fair… A band of 80 to 100 pieces, selected from the military bands of several army posts on Oahu, and from the Royal Hawaiian and regimental band of the First Infantry, National Guard, will present a big musical concert at the Territorial Fair, Wednesday evening, June 12. This magnificent musical feature has been definitely incorporated in the Fair program by the Army and Navy Committee.
“All the thousands of Island folk who heard the great massed band in front of the capital during the Mid Pacific Carnival two years ago will be eager to hear the forthcoming program…”
Over a six day period, June 10-15, 1918, 118,000 tickets of admission were sold and the event was deemed a success. On October 11, 1918, a few poignant sentences were printed in the Maui News under the headline “MAY COMBINE CARNIVAL AND FAIR, The Territorial Fair Commission has decided to hold the next Fair in Honolulu [in] 1919. It is proposed to postpone [the] Mid-Pacific Carnival and combine whole with Fair.”
Unlike the Mid Pacific Carnival, there were no postcards printed to advertise the upcoming event. However, the Honolulu Star-Bulletin did publish a souvenir postcard to mark the occasion.
I have two of these interesting cards and the one I am showing here was one of the first Hawaiian postcards I acquired for my nascent collection in 1982 or 1983, after we decided to make our permanent home in Santa Rosa (see Figures 19 and 20). I would say this card is fairly difficult to acquire and, historically speaking, of great interest to collectors of the Mid Pacific Carnival series.
We have finally reached the end of our series. I planned to begin this post with the 1917 Mid Pacific Carnival image – one of Harry’s favorites – and end with this last piece: an elaborate cover printed for the Fair Commission with a multicolor cache advertising Hawaii’s Annual Territorial Fair and comprised of motifs representing elements from the first Fair in 1918 (see Figure 21).
We both loved it. Out of all the items in my Hawaiiana collection, this was Harry’s absolute favorite. He often asked me to bring it when I visited Honolulu and we spent many hours enjoying it together. I miss you my friend… I manaolana makou hui hou.
For a gallery featuring Hawaii’s Floral Parade and Mid Pacific Gallery collectibles, click here.
I hope you have enjoyed learning about Harry Foglietta and his collecting interests. Obviously, this was a big undertaking and I had a lot of help throughout my life to get me to this place in time. I would like to thank Harry for making me care enough about him to want to devote the time and effort necessary to complete this project; Patrice Skopal and Jim Foglietta for filling me in on Harry’s life before I met him and for providing some wonderful photographs; Ken Prag for helping to educate me about Hawaiian postcards when I was first starting to collect; Don Medcalf for allowing me to acquire several of the highlights I shared with you – especially those belonging to Duke and David Kahanamoku; Dan DePalma Jr. for wanting me to take over custodianship of many of the Hawaiian pieces from his father’s tremendous collection; Floyd Fitzpatrick for consolidating so many rare Hawaiian postcards and photographs into one collection – he made my task much easier; Schuylar Rumsey for providing the opportunity for Harry and I to meet; Ronn Ronck and Robert Van Dyke for writing Hawaiian Yesterdays – Historical Photographs by Ray Jerome Baker and Gary Lynch and Malcom Gault-Williams for writing Tom Blake – The Uncommon Journey of a Hawaiian Waterman. I relied on a great many books and articles in researching this series of posts but these two books stood out; Frederick Kohner for taking the time write about his daughter’s passion for surfing in such a way as to inspire a new generation of surfers on the mainland. The power of Gidget should not be underestimated; Tim De La Vega for helping me keep my facts straight and providing information I could not find elsewhere; Kaiya and my son, Eric, for their technical and emotional support: Dolores Rowe for proofreading and correcting what turned out to be a very long manuscript and for sharing some of the gems from her incredible collection and, finally, to my wife Kay who was unwavering in her understanding and support for this project. Harry brought out the best in us while he was alive and his memory has the power to continue to do so. I hope this work helps to keep his memory alive,
David Torre – September 3, 2018.